Dual Clutch Transmission

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The report introduces and describes the technology of “Dual Clutch Transmission”, which is a relatively new technology. It has the advantage of both automatic and manual gears. It helps the driver to control the clutch without a clutch pedal, hence giving him a smoother driving. The technology has been used by various car manufactures and is gaining a large market.

Dual Clutch Transmission Mechanical Seminar Report


A dual-clutch transmission offers the function of two manual gearboxes in one. When a driver wants to change from one gear to another in a standard stick-shift car, he first presses down the clutch pedal. This operates a single clutch, which disconnects the engine from the gearbox and interrupts power flow to the transmission. Then the driver uses the stick shift to select a new gear, a process that involves moving a toothed collar from one gear wheel to another gear wheel of a different size. Devices called synchronizers match the gears before they are engaged to prevent grinding. Once the new gear is engaged, the driver releases the clutch pedal, which re-connects the engine to the gearbox and transmits power to the wheels.


If the teeth, the so-called dog teeth, make contact with the gear, but the two parts are spinning at different speeds, the teeth will fail to engage and a loud grinding sound will be heard as they clatter together. For this reason, a modern dog clutch in an automobile has a synchronizer mechanism or synchromesh, which consists of a cone clutch and blocking ring. Before the teeth can engage, the cone clutch engages first which brings the selector and gear to the same speed using friction. Moreover, until synchronization occurs, the teeth are prevented from making contact, because further motion of the selector is prevented by a blocker (or baulk) ring. When synchronization occurs, friction on the blocker ring is relieved and it twists slightly, bringing into alignment certain grooves and notches that allow further passage of the selector which brings the teeth together. Of course, the exact design of the synchronizer varies from manufacturer to manufacturer.

Manual Clutch

In all vehicles using a transmission (virtually all modern vehicles), a coupling device is used to separate the engine and transmission when necessary. The clutch accomplishes this in manual transmissions. Without it, the engine and tires would at all times be inextricably linked, and any time the vehicle stopped the engine would stall. Without the clutch, changing gears would be very difficult, even with the vehicle moving already: deselecting a gear while the transmission is under load requires considerable force, and selecting a gear requires the revolution speed of the engine to be held at a very precise value which depends on the vehicle speed and desired gear. In a car the clutch is usually operated by a pedal; on a motorcycle, a lever on the left handlebar serves the purpose.

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Blue Brain - Seminar Reports|PPT|PDF|DOC|Presentation

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    Blue Brain

What Is Blue Brain?
             The IBM is now developing a virtual brain known as the Blue brain. It would be the world’s first virtual brain.  Within 30 years, we will be able to scan ourselves into the computers.

Why We Need Virtual Brain?
        Today we are developed because of our intelligence. Intelligence is the inborn quality that can not be created .Some people have this quality ,so that they can think up to such an extent where other can not reach .Human society is always need of such intelligence and such an intelligent brain to have with. But the intelligence is lost along with the body after the death. The virtual brain is a solution to it. The brain and intelligence will alive even after the death.  

Current Research Work   

IBM, in partnership with scientists at Switzerland's Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne's (EPFL) Brain and Mind Institute will begin simulating the brain's biological systems and output the data as a working 3-dimensional model that will recreate the high-speed electro-chemical interactions that take place within the brain's interior. These include cognitive functions such as language, learning, perception and memory in addition to brain malfunction such as psychiatric disorders like depression and autism. From there, the modeling will expand to other regions of the brain and, if successful, shed light on the relationships between genetic, molecular and cognitive functions of the brain. 

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3D DOCTOR - Electronics And Communications Engineering

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About 3D Doctor

3D-DOCTOR Software is used to extract information from image files to create 3D model. It was developed using object-oriented technology and provides efficient tools to process and analyze 3D images, object boundaries, 3D models and other associated data items in an easy-to-use environment. It does 3D image segmentation, 3D surface modeling, rendering, volume rendering, 3D image processing, disconsolation, registration, automatic alignment, measurements, and many other functions.

3D-DOCTOR supports both grayscale and color images stored in DICOM, TIFF, Interfile, GIF, JPEG, PNG, BMP, PGM, RAW or other image file formats. 3D-DOCTOR creates 3D surface models and volume rendering from 2D cross-section images in real time on your PC. Leading hospitals, medical schools and research organizations around the world are currently using 3D-DOCTOR.

Creating 3D Surface Model From Images
The following steps explain the process of creating a 3D surface model from images.

Step 1. Open the 3D image using the File/Open Image command. 

Step 2. Segment the image using one of the segmentation commands to generate boundaries for an object.

Step 3. Edit the boundary lines using the Edit/Boundary Editor, if necessary. Use the File/Boundary/Export Boundary command to save the boundary data to a file.

Measurements Done By 3D DOCTOR

             3D-DOCTOR can make a variety of image measurements, including distance, area, surface area, volume, profile, and image region histogram. 3D-DOCTOR lets you measure angles using the Angle Measurement tool. 3D volumes of  3D surface models can be calculated easily.  When the surface model window is displayed, use the Process/Calculate Volumes command.

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Web Caching - Computer Engineering

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The World Wide Web can be considered as a large distributed information system that provides access to shared data objects. As one of the most popular applications currently running on the Internet, The World Wide Web is of an exponential growth in size, which results in network congestion and server overloading. Web caching has been recognized as one of the effective schemes to alleviate the service bottleneck and reduce the network traffic, thereby minimize the user access latency.

Proxy Caching

Proxy servers are generally used to allow access to the Internet from users within a firewall. For security reasons, companies run a special type of HTTP servers called "proxy" on their firewall machines. A Proxy server typically processes requests from within a firewall by forwarding them to the remote servers, intercepting the responses, and sending the replies back to the clients. Since the same proxy servers are typically shared by all clients inside of the firewall, naturally this leads to the question of the effectiveness of using these proxies to cache documents.
Web Caching Seminar Report
Clients within the same firewall usually belong to the same organization and likely share common interests. They would probably access the same set of documents and each client tends to browse back and forth within a short period of time. Therefore on the proxy server a previously requested and cached document would likely result in future hits. Web caching at proxy server can not only save network bandwidth but also lower access latency for the clients.

Cost-Based Replacement Policies

Greedy Dual Size (GD-Size): It associates a cost with each object and evicts objects with least cost/size. This is a generalization of the LRU algorithm to the case where each object has a different fetch cost. The motivation behind the GD-Size scheme is that objects with large fetch costs should stay in the cache for longer time. The algorithm maintains a value for each object that is currently stored in the cache. When an object is fetched into the cache, its value is set to its fetch cost.

When a cache miss occurs, the object with the minimum value is evicted from the cache, and the values of all other objects in the cache are reduced by this minimum value. And if an object in the cache is accessed, then its value is restored to its fetch cost. A further implementation optimization is to note that it is only the relative value that matters in this algorithm. So, instead of deleting a fixed quantity from the value of each cached entry, the fixed quantity could be added to the value of the new object, and the effect would remain the same.

Hierarchical Greedy Dual (Hierarchical GD): This algorithm does object placement and replacement cooperatively in a hierarchy. Cooperative placement helps to utilize a nearby idle cache and the hit rates in the cache hierarchy are increased by placement of unique objects. It is the same as GD-size with the added advantage of cooperative caching. In this scheme, when an object is evicted from one of the child clusters, it is sent to its parent cluster. The parent first checks whether it has another copy of the object among its caches. If not, it picks the minimum valued object among all its cached objects. Out of the two objects, it retains the one that was used more recently. It propagates the other object recursively to its parent.

Between Browser Clients And Proxies

                        Prefetching can also be done between browser clients and proxies. One approach is to predict which cached documents a user might reference next (based on PPM) and take the advantage of idle time between user requests to push the documents to the users.
                        The first two approaches run the risk of increasing wide area network traffic, while the last one only affects the traffic over the modems or the LANs. All of these approaches attempt to prefetch either documents that are considered as popular at servers or documents that are predicted to be accessed by user in the near future based on the access pattern.

Strong Cache Consistency

a)        Client validation: This approach is also called polling-every-time. The proxy treats cached resources as potentially out-of-date on each access and sends an If-Modified-Since header with each access of the resources. This approach can lead to many 304 responses (HTTP response code for "Not Modified") by server if the resource does not actually change.

b)        Server invalidation: Upon detecting a resource change, the server sends invalidation messages to all clients that have recently accessed and potentially cached the resource. This approach requires a server to keep track of lists of clients to use for invalidating cached copies of changed resources and can become unwieldy for a server when the number of clients is large. In addition, the lists themselves can become out-of-date causing the server to send invalidation messages to clients who are no longer caching the resource.
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Chip Morphing Abstract

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Engineering is a study of tradeoffs. In computer engineering the tradeoff has traditionally been between performance, measured in instructions per second, and price. Because of fabrication technology, price is closely related to chip size and transistor count. With the emergence of embedded systems, a new tradeoff has become the focus of design. This new tradeoff is between performance and power or energy consumption. The computational requirements of early embedded systems were generally more modest, and so the performance-power tradeoff tended to be weighted towards power. “High performance” and “energy efficient” were generally opposing concepts.

However, new classes of embedded applications are emerging which not only have significant energy constraints, but also require considerable computational resources. Devices such as space rovers, cell phones, automotive control systems, and portable consumer electronics all require or can benefit from high-performance processors. The future generations of such devices should continue this trend.


Traditionally, performance has been improved by increasing the complexity of a micro-architecture. Unfortunately, power reduction has traditionally been accomplished by reducing processor complexity. Resolving these opposing demands is the primary challenge for low power high performance architectures.

This growth in processor complexity is clearly demonstrated by the growth in the number of transistors in a processor. This complexity has taken many forms, such as multiple levels of cache, multiple functional units, and out of order execution. Though these techniques increase performance, they expend energy and experience diminishing returns. Indeed, it would appear that complex superscalar designs inherently contain too much overhead to be energy efficient.


Three key ratios are the focus to high-performance and low-power processor design: instructions per cycle (IPC), energy per instruction (EPI), and energy per cycle (EPC). These metrics can determine if a processor can provide high-performance, if it can do so in a power efficient manner, and if it dissipates little power even when high-performance is not required.

IPC is the first level estimate of architectural speed. If a processor does not contain any features which would inherently limit the clock speed, IPC can provide a good estimate of actual performance. If power consumption were not an issue, then IPC would be the primary metric. EPI gives the most direct measure of energy efficiency. For embedded applications, energy measurement is generally more useful than power estimation because embedded applications are more likely to be constrained by a battery. A suite of applications that must be run cannot consume more total energy than is stored.

Chip Morphing Seminar Abstract

Because these embedded applications show large fluctuations in their performance requirements, the tradeoff between performance and power can change. Thus, we need an additional metric for when power consumption is less important than performance, such as ’standby’ modes found in many portable telecommunications devices. EPC provides such a metric, as it discards performance concerns and allows focus just on the energy consumed over time.

The Multi-Cluster Micro Architecture

In both cases, a relatively conventional shared fetch and decode unit fetches blocks of instructions, and determines what class of instructions they are (any branch prediction is done here). The differences between the two begin here, however. In the conventional design, a Register Renaming unit, keeps track of the mapping between architectural registers assumed by the program and the physical registers allocated to them in the common register file. In the conventional design, the new instructions are added to a common issue window, and extracted as dependencies are solved. The single common multi-ported register file holds all the physical registers.


This paper has attempted to introduce the main concepts in the Morph project, an attempt to approach low power embedded system in a novel way - by attacking power consumption during those frequent times when less than peak performance is needed.
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GPS Seminar In Computer Science Engineering

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Definition Of Gps
 GPS Is A Satellite Navigation System

          The GPS is a worldwide radio navigation system formed from a constellation of 24 satellites and their ground stations. GPS uses these “manmade stars” as reference points to calculate the positions accurate to a matter of meters. In fact, with advanced forms of GPS you can make measurements to better than a centimeter! In a sense it is like giving every square meter on the planet a unique address, the system was designed for and is operated by the U. S. military. GPS is funded by and controlled by the U. S. Department of Defense (DOD). While there are many thousands of civil users of GPS world wide. GPS has mainly 3 parts the space segment, the user segment and the control segment. They are collectively called as GPS Elements.

GPS Seminar In Computer Science Engineering

GPS Elements

          GPS has mainly three elements they are the space segment  the user segment  and  the control segment .The space segment consists of the nominal GPS satellite network that consists of a constellation of 24 satellites that orbit the earth in 12 hrs. These space vehicles (SVs) send radio signals from space. The Control Segment consists of a system of tracking stations located around the world that make sure the satellites are working properly. The GPS User Segment consists of the GPS receivers and the user community. GPS receivers convert SV signals into position, velocity, and time estimates. Four satellites are required to compute the four dimensions of X, Y, Z (position) and Time. GPS receivers are used for navigation, positioning, time dissemination, and other research. Now we can discuss about these GPS elements in detail.

Measuring Distance

          Here we can discuss how the receiver and satellite work together to make this measurement .GPS receiver calculates the distance to GPS satellites by timing a signal’s journey from satellite to receiver, as it turns this is a fairly elaborate process.

          At a particular time, the satellite begins transmitting a long, digital pattern called a pseudo-random code. The receiver begins running the same digital pattern also exactly at that time. When the satellite’s signal reaches the receiver, its transmission lag a bit behind the receiver’s playing of the pattern. The length of the delay is the signal’s travel time. The receiver multiplies this time with the speed of the signal to determine how far the signal traveled.

          In order to make this measurement the receiver and satellite both need clocks that can be synchronized down to the nanoseconds. Thus every satellite is equipped with an expensive atomic clocks and the receiver itself uses an ordinary quartz clock, which it constantly resets.

          In order for the distance information to be of any use, the receiver also has to know where the satellites actually are. The GPS receiver simply stores an almanac data that tells it where every satellite should be at any given time. Things like pull of the moon and the sun do change their orbits very slightly  the Department Of Defense constantly monitors their positions exactly and transmits any adjustments to all GPS receivers as part of the satellite’s signals.
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Ultrasonic Motor EEE Engineering

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          All of us know that motor is a machine which produces or imparts motion, or in detail it is an arrangement of coils and magnets that converts electric energy into mechanical energy and ultrasonic motors are the next generation motors.

          In 1980,the world’s first ultrasonic motor was invented which utilizes the piezoelectric effect in the ultrasonic frequency range to provide its motive force resulting in a motor with unusually good low speed, high torque and power to weight characteristics.

          Electromagnetism has always been the driving force behind electric motor technology. But these motors suffer from many drawbacks. The field of ultrasonic seems to be changing that driving force.

Ultrasonic Motor Seminar Reports


          When a voltage having a resonance frequency of more than 20 KHz is applied to the piezoelectric element of an elastic body(a stator),the piezoelectric element expands and  expands and contracts. The piezoelectric ring is divided into two groups of alternated polarities, which are driven simultaneously by cyclic signals that are ninety degrees out of phase, to produce a traveling wave of flexural vibrations. The third input lead is ground and attached to the ring itself. It acts as a common return to both  the out of phase input leads.

A stator and a rotor (dynamic body) are coupled to form an ultrasonic motor. The dynamic body is pressed against the side of the stator metal surface which the piezoelectric ceramic is  not glued on.Comb tooth grooves are created on this side. The rotor (dynamic body) is pressed tightly against this side of the stator metal surface so that they are adhered together closely. As the progressive wave travels and undulates through this contact surface, some areas of the surface of the rotor which is tightly adhered to the stator are contacted by the vertices of the wave and some areas are not. At this time, at the vertices of the progressive wave that contacts the rotor surface, an elliptic motion is generated.                    

          The locus of the elliptic motion points to the opposite direction of the progressive wave traveling on the stator surface. At the same time, it has a vertical elliptic motion in contrast to the horizontal undulation of the progressive wave that travels on the stator surface. Reversing the polarity of the input power will reverse the direction of rotation.

          The rotor and stator are pressed against each other with strong pressure to create tight adhesion. The progressive wave travels along the circumference of the stator while undulating. Only the vertexes of the progressive wave contact the rotor surface and an elliptic rotary motion is generated at each vertex. Affected by the elliptic rotary motion, the rotor is impelled to rotate. As the direction of the locus of the elliptic motion is opposite to the direction of the progressive wave, the rotor affected by it also rotates in the opposite direction of the progressive wave. When   the progressive wave travels along the circumference of the stator clockwise (CW), a counterclockwise (CCW) elliptic rotary motion is generated at the vertex of the wave contacting the rotor surface. The rotor contacting the vertex is impelled by the CCW elliptic rotary motion and rotates CCW.

Absence Of Magnetic Motion

          As the ultrasonic motor does not use coil or magnets as its driving force, it does not generate magnetism. It can be operated without influence of magnetism even in strong magnetic fields.

Compact, Lightweight And Noiseless

          As the  USM does not require coils, it has a simple and lightweight structure. Further more, as it doesn’t require reduction gear due to its low speed, and uses ultrasonic vibrations in ranges not audible to the human ear, its running noise is extremely quiet. Only 2 ms are needed to start the motor from zero.
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Mechanical Engineering Seminar List

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1.    Acoustic Parking System (APS)
2.    Active Roll-Over Protection System In Automobiles
3.    Advance Systems In Two Wheelers
4.    Advanced Off-Set Printing
5.    Advanced Rocket Motors
6.    Aerodonetics
7.    Air Brithing Engine
8.    Air Ship
9.    Aircraft Design
10.                       Amphibious Army Surveillance Vehicle
11.                       Antiroll Suspension System
12.                       Aqua Silencer - A Noise & Emission Controller
13.                       Atkinson Cycle Engine
14.                       Automobile Air Conditioning
15.                       Ball Piston Machines
16.                       Benchmarking
17.                       Bio-Ethanol As Fuel
18.                       Biomass As An Alternate Fuel For Diesel Engine
19.                       Bose Suspension System
20.                       Caged Ball Technology
21.                       Catalytic Converters
22.                       Ceramic Hybrid Ball Bearing
23.                       Collision Warning System
24.                       Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) Engines
25.                       Computational Fluid Dynamics
26.                       Concentrating Solar Power Energy From Mirrors
27.                       Concept Of Flying Train
28.                       Continuously Variable Transmission
29.                       Crew Exploration Vechicles
30.                       Cryogenic Ball Valves
31.                       Crystaline Silicon Solar Cells
32.                       Data Fusion For Quality Improvements
33.                       Desktop Manufacturing
34.                       Digital Manufacturing Using STEP- NC
35.                       Driver Information System (DIS)
36.                       Dynamic Shift Program (DSP)
37.                       Dynamics Of Sport Climbing
38.                       Eco-Freiendly Surface Treatments
39.                       Electric Cylinders
40.                       Electromagnetic Bomb
41.                       Electronic Multipoint Fuel Injection System
42.                       Electrostatic Precipitator
43.                       Energy Saving Motors
44.                       FADEC - Full Authority Digital Engine Control.
45.                       Floating Power Stations
46.                       Freeform Manufacturing
47.                       Fuel Cells On Aerospace
48.                       Fused Deposition Modelling
49.                       Gas Hydrates
50.                       Gasoline Direct Injection
51.                       Green Manufacturing
52.                       Harvesting Wave Power
53.                       Heat Pipe
54.                       Hexapod Machine Tool
55.                       High Speed Precise Gear Boxes
56.                       High Speed Propellers
57.                       Hovercrafts
58.                       Hybrid Synergy Drive
59.                       Hydraulic Railway Recovery Systems
60.                       Hydro Jetting
61.                       Hyperplane
62.                       Improved Efficiency Of Gas Turbine
63.                       Infrared Thermography
64.                       Jet Powered Boat
65.                       Lenoir Cycle
66.                       Liquid Injection Thrust Vectoring
67.                       Machine Vision
68.                       Mass Airflow Sensor
69.                       Mechanical Torque Limitors
70.                       Mechanical Transmissions
71.                       Mesotechnology
72.                       Metal Nanoshells
73.                       Metamorphic Robots
74.                       Micro Batteries
75.                       Micro Gravity
76.                       Micro Heat Exchangers
77.                       Micro Hydraulics
78.                       Micromixers
79.                       Nanomaterial
80.                       Nanoscale Armor
81.                       Oil Shear Brakes
82.                       Perpetual Motion Machines
83.                       Power Hump
84.                       Random Vibrations
85.                       Research Aircrafts
86.                       Robot Driven Cars
87.                       Robotic Roller Coasters
88.                       Robots In Radioactive Environments
89.                       Rocket Powered Aircraft
90.                       Roller Pumps
91.                       Semi Solid Casting
92.                       Stealth Fighter
93.                       Stratified Charge Engine
94.                       Synthetic Aperature Radar
95.                       The Atomic Battery
96.                       Threadless Couplings
97.                       Ultra Nano Crystallline Diamond
98.                       Variable Compression Ratio Engine
99.                       Vertical Landing And Takeoff Engine
100.                 Virtual Manufacturing System
101.                 Wireless Factories
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